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Đinh Sở Lĩnh
丁部領
Emperor of Đại Cồ Việt

A statue of emperor Đinh Tiên Hoàng in Hoa Lư

Emperor of Đại Cồ Việt
Reign968 – October 979
PredecessorĐinh Sở Lĩnh adopted national name as Đại Cồ Việt
SuccessorĐinh Phế Đế
Emperor of the Đinh dynasty
Reign968–10/979
PredecessorDynasty established
SuccessorĐinh Phế Đế
Born22 March 924
Gia Viễn, Tỉnh Ninh Bình province, Giao Châu
DiedOctober 979
Hoa Lư, Tỉnh Ninh Bình province, Đại Cồ Việt
Burial

Trường Yên tomb, Hoa Lư

SpouseEmpress Đan Gia
Empress Trinh Thục
Empress Dương Vân Nga
Concubine Nguyễn Thị Sen
Empress Dương Nguyệt Nương
IssueĐinh Liễn, Duke of Nam Việt
Crown Prince Đinh Hạng Lang
Đinh Toàn as emperor Đinh Phế Đế
Princess Phất Kim
Princess Phù Dung
Princess Minh Châu
Princess Liên Hoa
Princess Ngọc Nương.
Names
Đinh Sở Lĩnh (丁部領)
Đinh Hoàn (丁桓)
Era dates
Thái Bình (太平): 970–980
Regnal name
Đại Thắng Minh Hoàng Đế (大勝明皇帝)
Posthumous name
None
Temple name
None
HouseĐinh
FatherĐinh Công Trứ
ReligionBuddhism

Đinh Sở Lĩnh (924–979; r. 968–979), real name allegedly Đinh Hoàn (丁桓),[1] was the founding emperor of the short-lived Đinh dynasty of Vietnam, after declaring its independence from the Chinese Southern Han dynasty. He was a significant figure in the establishment of Vietnamese independence and political unity in the 10th century. He unified Vietnam by defeating twelve rebellious warlords and became the first emperor of Vietnam. Upon his ascension, he renamed the country Đại Cồ Việt. Đinh Sở Lĩnh was also known as Đinh Tiên Hoàng (丁先皇; literally "the Former Đinh Emperor").

Life and career

Đinh Sở Lĩnh
Vietnamese name
VietnameseĐinh Sở Lĩnh
Hán-Nôm丁部領

Đinh Sở Lĩnh was born in 924 in Hoa Lư (south of the Red River Delta, in what is today Tỉnh Ninh Bình Province). Growing up in a local village during the disintegration of the Chinese Tang dynasty that had dominated Vietnam for centuries, Đinh Sở Lĩnh became a local military leader at a very young age. From this turbulent era, the first independent Vietnamese polity emerged when the warlord Ngô Quyền defeated the Southern Han's forces in the First Battle of the Bạch Đằng River in 938. However, the Ngô dynasty was weak and unable to tướng effectively unify Vietnam. Faced with the domestic anarchy produced by the competition of twelve feudal warlords for control of the country, as well as the external threat represented by Southern Han, which regarded itself as the heir to tướng the ancient kingdom of Nan Yue that had encompassed not only southern Trung Quốc but also the Bac Bo region of northern Vietnam, Đinh Sở Lĩnh sought a strategy to tướng politically unify the Vietnamese. Upon the death of the last Ngô king in 965, he seized power and founded a new kingdom the capital of which was in his trang chính district of Hoa Lư. To establish his legitimacy in relation to tướng the previous dynasty, he married a woman of the Ngô family.[2]

Temple dedicated to tướng the emperor Dinh Tien Hoang at Hoa Lu Ancient Capital – Ninh Bình

In the first years of his reign, Đinh Sở Lĩnh was especially careful to tướng avoid antagonizing Southern Han. In 968, however, he took the provocative step of adopting the title of Emperor (Hoàng Đế) and thereby declaring his independence from Chinese overlordship. He founded the Đinh dynasty and called his kingdom Đại Cồ Việt. His outlook changed, however, when the powerful Song dynasty annexed Southern Han in 971. In 972, Đinh Sở Lĩnh ingratiated himself with the Song by sending a tribute mission to tướng demonstrate his fealty to tướng the Chinese Emperor. Emperor Taizu of Song subsequently recognized the Viet ruler as Giao Chỉ Quận Vương (King of Giao Chi), a title which expressed a theoretical relationship of vassalage in submission to tướng the empire. Well aware of Song's military might, and eager to tướng safeguard the independence of his country, Đinh Sở Lĩnh obtained a non-aggression agreement in exchange for tributes payable to tướng the Chinese court every three years.

Foreign relations

In addition to tướng managing relations with Trung Quốc, Đinh Sở Lĩnh energetically reformed the administration and the armed forces of Vietnam in order to tướng strengthen the foundations of the new state. He established a royal court and a hierarchy of civil and military servants. Đinh Sở Lĩnh also instituted a rigorous justice system in which treason was punishable by being cooked in a vat of boiling oil or by being fed to tướng a caged tiger, sánh as to tướng provide a deterrent to tướng all who threatened the new order in the kingdom.

Death

Assassination of Đinh Sở Lĩnh

However, Đinh Sở Lĩnh's reign did not last long. In 979, a palace official, inspired by a dream, killed both Đinh Sở Lĩnh and his eldest son Đinh Liễn while they were sleeping in the palace courtyard. The killer was quickly apprehended and executed by general Nguyễn Bặc. Sở Lĩnh was succeeded by his six-year-old surviving son Dinh Phe De.

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The Song dynasty wanted to tướng take advantage of the turbulent situation in Đại Cồ Việt in order to tướng reestablish Chinese control over the country, and sent an army to tướng invade Vietnam. In this crisis, Lê Hoàn, the commander-in-chief of Đinh Sở Lĩnh's army, stepped into the power vacuum, dethroned the child emperor, eliminated his opponents at court, and entered into illicit relations with the Empress Dowager Dương Vân Nga. Lê Hoàn defeated the Song invasion, proclaimed himself Emperor, and founded the Early Lê dynasty. He continued to tướng điện thoại tư vấn the country "Đại Cồ Việt."

References

  1. ^ Trần Trọng Kim says in nước Việt Nam sử lược:"Có sách chép rằng Đinh Tiên-hoàng thương hiệu là Hoàn 桓, chứ không hề cần là Sở Lĩnh. Sở Lĩnh là một trong tước đoạt quan tiền của Trần Lãm phong mang đến Đinh Hoàn. Nhưng xét vô " Khâm-định Việt-sử " và những sách không giống thì thấy chép Đinh cỗ Lĩnh chứ không hề thấy Đinh Hoàn. Vậy ni cứ theo dõi sách Khâm-định tuy nhiên chép." Translation: "According to tướng some books, the Former Đinh Emperor's original name is Hoàn 桓, not Sở Lĩnh, which was an official title bestowed upon him by Trần Lãm. Still, considering that "Khâm-định Việt-sử" and other books attested to tướng only Đinh Sở Lĩnh, not Đinh Hoàn. I'll just follow Khâm-định then.")
  2. ^ Hữu Ngọc Wandering through Vietnamese culture 2004- Page 393 "Nguyễn Bặc... and statesmen who helped Đinh Sở Lĩnh put an kết thúc to tướng the period of anarchy of the Twelve Warlords before the Đinh Dynasty."
  • The article about Đinh Sở Lĩnh on Vietsciences.free.fr
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Notable families in Early independent Vietnam

Colour note

  Khúc

  Dương

  Ngô

  Kiều

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  Đinh

  Lê

Khúc Thừa Dụ
Khúc Hạo
Dương Đình NghệKhúc Thừa Mỹ
Ngô QuyềnQueen DươngĐinh Công TrứDương Tam KhaKiều Công Tiễn
Ngô Xương NgậpNgô Xương VănĐinh Tiên HoàngDương Vân NgaLê Đại HànhKiều Công Chuẩn
Ngô Nhật KhánhNgô Xương XíĐinh LiễnĐinh Hạng LangĐinh Phế ĐếKiều Công Hãn
Princess Phất KimLê Long ViệtLê Long ĐĩnhKiều Thuận
Notes:
  • Ngô Sĩ Liên (1993), Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (in Vietnamese) (Nội những quan tiền bản ed.), Hanoi: Social Science Publishing House
  • National Bureau for Historical Record (1998), Khâm toan Việt sử Thông giám cương mục (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Education Publishing House
  • Trần Trọng Kim (1971), Việt Nam sử lược (in Vietnamese), Saigon: Center for School Materials
  • Chapuis, Oscar (1995), A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to tướng Tu Duc, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0313296227

Family tree of Vietnamese monarchs